C difficile is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that can cause a spectrum
of enteric diseases ranging from mild diarrhea to fulminant life-threatening
colitis. Almost all cases of pseudomembranous colitis are associated with
recent antibiotic therapy. Almost all antibiotics, and some antineoplastic
agents, have been implicated as factors leading to C difficile colitis.
By altering the normal colonic flora, antibiotic use allows C difficile
to proliferate, which results in the clinical disease. Earlier recognition
and treatment of C difficile–related colitis with appropriate antibiotics
decreases the prevalence of fulminant colitis that may develop in these
CT Findings in this condition include colonic wall thickening,wall nodularity,
the accordion sign, pericolonic stranding and ascites.